About Crocus sativus L. - saffron

Crocus sativus (Crocus sativus L.)

is one of the very old plants of the Irish family. It first appeared in the Asia Minor region, but it was already known by all the great civilizations around the Mediterranean, whether Egyptians, Greeks or Romans. It has been widely used - as a dye, spice, raw material in perfumery and aesthetic medicine. Even our ancestors weighed the saffron as a spice that was obtained by processing the crown of saffron flowers. Stylus (Latin stigma croci) is part of the pistil, which is the female genital organ of the angiosperms. It serves to capture male pollen grains in a flower.

Autumn flowers bloom in violet, each bloom is three filamentous, 2-3 cm long purple red junks that are harvested by hand by chopping. The flower has six petals. Saffron spice is made up of dried crown saffron crocus sativos L. One saffron flower contains only 3 saffron junks, sometimes incorrectly referred to as blizzards. Harvesting and processing takes place manually, which is, among other things, the reason why saffron is so valued and expensive.

The entire plant of Crocus sativus L. is shown in Fig. 1, the saffron flower of Figures 2 and 3, the saffron pistil in Fig. 4, and some examples of floral waste in Fig 5.

The terms and definitions of the plant description are based on ISO 3632. 

stigma (junks)
Parts of the pistil

EXAMPLE: In Crocus sativus L., the flowers are dark red in color and trumpet-shaped, crenate or indented at the top and attached to the stem at the end. See Figure 4

style (stem)
Part of the pistil between the jaws and the seeders See Figure 4

Male reproductive organ of plant Note 1 to record: In the flower of Crocus sativus L., the stalks are yellow.

non-processable substances 
All substances that belong to the plant but are not processed into spices or herbs

EXAMPLE: In the flower of Crocus sativus L., the origin of foreign matter may be floral waste (eg petals, separate stems, rods, pollen grains and parts of seeds) and plant waste other than floral waste.foreign matter 

All ingredients that are not part of a plant that is processed into spices or herbs Example: In Crocus sativus L., the origin of foreign matter may be animal (eg insect, dead insects, insect fragments, rodent contamination) or foreign matter without animal origin . Non-animal foreign substances may be from other plants (eg other plant substances, leaves, stems, straw) or other (eg mineral, plastic).

saffron in fibers 
Dried stems and parts of Crocus sativus L. Note 1: The juniper berries may be separated or joined in two or three groups at the tip of a part of the stem that has a yellowish-white color (approximately 20 mm to 40 mm in length).

saffron in the cut fibers 
Dried dried limes of Crocus sativus L. (with completely removed stalks apart

Saffron in powder form 
Particles obtained by crushing Crocus sativus L. Note 1: The particle size may vary according to the agreement between the buyer and the seller.


Figure 1 - Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) plant


1 flower
2 stigma (junks)
3 petals
4 main sheets
5 bulb tubers

Figure 2 - whole saffron (Crocus sativus L.) flowers (longitudinal cut) 

Figure 3 (Crocus sativus L.) flowers

Figure 4 - Saffron (Crocus sativus L.)
female reproductive organ (pistil)
1 overhead (visible) section
2 underground (hidden) section
3 seed
4 style (stem)
5 stigma (length 20 mm to 40 mm)

NOTE The total length of the fresh pistil
is between 60 mm and 100 mm.


Figure 5 - Some examples of floral waste


1 sticks (about 20 mm long)
2 pollen grains (diameter 80 μm to 100 μm)
3 semicircles (longitudinal section) (length about 10 mm)
4 semicircles (cross section)

Where can you go on?